Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. It occurs when cells of the prostate mutate and begin to multiply out of control. These cells may spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, especially the bones and lymph nodes. Prostate cancer may cause pain, difficulty in urinating, erectile dysfunction and other symptoms.

Like many types of cancer, prostate cancer can be aggressive. This means it grows quickly and can spread to other parts of the body. Prostate cancer can also grow more slowly. If you have prostate cancer, it is important for your doctor to monitor the growth of your cancer carefully. If left completely unchecked, the cancer can grow quickly and spread to other organs in your body. This makes treatment much more difficult.

Signs & Symptoms

Prostate cancer may not cause any signs or symptoms, especially in the early stages. Symptoms are more likely to appear as the cancer grows. If you have any of these symptoms, don’t ignore them. See your doctor. You may need to have some tests to help find out what is causing them. Most enlargements of the prostate are not cancer.

  • Need to urinate often, especially at night.
  • Difficulty in starting or stopping the urine flow.
  • Dribbling after you finish urinating.
  • Frequent urination, especially at night.
  • Blood or pus in the urine.
  • A sense of incompletely emptying the bladder.
  • Pain while urinating.
  • Pain with ejaculation.
  • Hip and lower back pain that does not go away over time.
  • Pain in the lower part of your pelvis.
  • Unintended weight loss and/or loss of appetite.

Diagnosis

When a man has symptoms of prostate cancer, or a screening test indicates an increased risk for cancer, more invasive evaluation is offered. To confirm the diagnosis, your doctor will arrange special tests. These tests may also be used to “stage” and “grade” the cancer. You may have one or more of the following tests.

  • Blood Tests
    Your blood may be tested for a substance called prostate-specific antigen (PSA). If you have an enlarged prostate, the amount of PSA in your blood may be slightly higher than normal. Prostate cancer usually causes even higher levels of PSA in the blood than an enlarged prostate does. If your PSA level is higher than expected for your age, more tests will be done to find out whether this is because of prostate cancer or another prostate problem.
  • Imaging studies
    Imaging studies allow tissues, organs and bones to be looked at in more detail. Using x-rays, ultrasounds, CT scans, MRIs or bone scans, your healthcare team can get a picture of the size of the tumour and see if it has spread.
  • Biopsy
    The only test which can fully confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a biopsy, the removal of small pieces of the prostate for microscopic examination. However, prior to a biopsy, several other tools may be used to gather more information about the prostate and the urinary tract. Cystoscopy shows the urinary tract from inside the bladder, using a thin, flexible camera tube inserted down the urethra. Transrectal ultrasonography creates a picture of the prostate using sound waves from a probe in the rectum.

Treatment for Prostate Cancer

Treatment for prostate cancer may involve watchful waiting, surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cryosurgery, hormonal therapy, or some combination. Which option is best depends on the stage of the disease, the Gleason score, and the PSA level. Other important factors are the man’s age, his general health, and his feelings about potential treatments and their possible side effects. Because all treatments can have significant side effects, such as erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence, treatment discussions often focus on balancing the goals of therapy with the risks of lifestyle alterations.

The selection of treatment options may be a complex decision involving many factors. For example, radical prostatectomy after primary radiation failure is a very technically challenging surgery and may not be an option. This may enter into the treatment decision.

  • Watchful Waiting and Active Surveillance
    Some prostate cancers are very slow growing and can be present for years without affecting your health. A TRUS or biopsy may be done from time to time. Immediate treatment may be considered only if signs of cancer appear or change.
  • Surgery
    Surgical removal of the prostate, or prostatectomy, is a common treatment either for early stage prostate cancer, or for cancer which has failed to respond to radiation therapy. The most common type is radical retropubic prostatectomy, when the surgeon removes the prostate through an abdominal incision. Another type is radical perineal prostatectomy, when the surgeon removes the prostate through an incision in the perineum, the skin between the scrotum and anus. Radical prostatectomy can also be performed laparoscopically, through a series of small (1cm) incisions in the abdomen, with or without the assistance of a surgical robot. A decision to have surgery depends on the stage and grade of the cancer, your general health and your PSA level. During the operation, the entire prostate will be removed. This is called a prostatectomy. Some nearby tissue may also be affected by the surgery. Surgery is done under general anesthetic and you may stay in the hospital for several days after the surgery.
  • Radiation Therapy
    Radiation therapy, also known as radiotherapy, is often used to treat all stages of prostate cancer, or when surgery fails. Radiotherapy uses ionizing radiation to kill prostate cancer cells. When absorbed in tissue, Ionizing radiation such as Gamma and x-rays damage the DNA in cells, which increases the probability of apoptosis (cell death). Two different kinds of radiation therapy are used in prostate cancer treatment: external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. In radiation therapy, a large machine is used to carefully aim a beam of radiation at the prostate. The radiation damages the cells in the path of the beam – normal cells as well as cancer cells. In brachytherapy, or internal radiation therapy, radioactive beads or seeds are placed directly into or near the prostate.
  • Hormonal Therapy
    Hormonal therapy is a treatment that removes or blocks hormones and stops cancer cells from growing. Prostate cancer needs the male hormone testosterone to grow. Hormonal therapy gets rid of testosterone or lowers the level of testosterone in your body to slow the growth of the tumour and to shrink it.
    Hormonal therapy uses medications or surgery to block prostate cancer cells from getting dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a hormone produced in the prostate and required for the growth and spread of most prostate cancer cells. Blocking DHT often causes prostate cancer to stop growing and even shrink. However, hormonal therapy rarely cures prostate cancer because cancers which initially respond to hormonal therapy typically become resistant after one to two years. Hormonal therapy is therefore usually used when cancer has spread from the prostate. It may also be given to certain men undergoing radiation therapy or surgery to help prevent return of their cancer.
  • Chemotherapy
    Chemotherapy may be given as pills or by injection. Chemotherapy drugs interfere with the ability of cancer cells to grow and spread, but they also damage healthy cells. Although healthy cells can recover over time, you may experience side effects from your treatment like nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, hair loss and an increased risk of infection.Chemotherapy is not used to treat cancer of the prostate in the early stages of the disease.
Book Your Appointment

At RG hospital, we offer the best available laparoscopic treatments

for prostate cancer. 24 hrs. emergency services are also available at RG Stone And Super Speciality Hospital. Call today for your consultation appointment at +91-98769-10000 or book your appointment online.

Book Your Appointment